前端移动开发实用布局技巧

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1.添加meta,使得网页在手机端能正常浏览

html 代码

<!– 设置缩放 –>
<meta name=”viewport” content=”width=device-width, initial-scale=1, user-scalable=no” />
<!– 可隐藏地址栏,仅针对IOS的Safari(注:IOS7.0版本以后,safari上已看不到效果) –>
<meta name=”apple-mobile-web-app-capable” content=”yes” />
<!– 仅针对IOS的Safari顶端状态条的样式(可选default/black/black-translucent ) –>
<meta name=”apple-mobile-web-app-status-bar-style” content=”black” />
<!– IOS中禁用将数字识别为电话号码/忽略Android平台中对邮箱地址的识别 –>
<meta name=”format-detection” content=”telephone=no, email=no” />
2.考虑是使用px,还是使用rem

对于只需要适配少部分手机设备,且分辨率对页面影响不大的,使用px即可;
如果需要高精度还原,适配各种手机,最好还是使用rem吧伙计们

1)使用px布局,宽度可使用百分比伸缩,高度使用固定像素
html 代码

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
    <meta charset=”UTF-8″>
    <meta name=”viewport” content=”width=device-width, initial-scale=1, user-scalable=no, minimal-ui” />
    <meta name=”apple-mobile-web-app-capable” content=”yes” />
    <meta name=”apple-mobile-web-app-status-bar-style” content=”black” />
    <meta name=”format-detection” content=”telephone=no, email=no” />
    <title></title>
    <style type=”text/css”>
        body {
            margin: 0;
            padding: 0;
            width: 320px;
            height: 568px;
            background: #fafafa;
            border: 1px solid #ccc;
        }
        .div1 {
            width: 40%;
            height: 60px;
            background: #FF0000;
            float: left;
        }
        .div2 {
            width: 60%;
            height: 60px;
            background: #FF7E00;
            float: left;
        }
    </style>
</head>
<body>
    <div class=”div1″>40%</div>
    <div class=”div2″>60%</div>
</body>
</html>

2)使用rem的话,需要有一个辅助才能打出高额的伤害;从常用的两个辅助中选择一个;
辅助一,使用@media,根据屏幕大小自动调整
可以看看这篇文章详细介绍《CSS3的REM设置字体大小》

辅助二,使用js动态计算,这个简直好用的不得了,简直完美还原设计稿
html 代码

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang=”en”>
<head>
    <meta charset=”UTF-8″>
    <meta name=”viewport” content=”initial-scale=1, maximum-scale=1,minimum-scale=1, user-scalable=no”>
    <meta name=”apple-mobile-web-app-capable” content=”yes”>
    <meta name=”apple-mobile-web-app-status-bar-style” content=”black”>
    <title>template</title>
    <script>
        //这个是小米官网的写法
        ! function (n) {
            var e = n.document,
                t = e.documentElement,
                i = 720, //设计图尺寸
                d = i / 100, //1rem = 100px
                o = “orientationchange” in n ? “orientationchange” : “resize”,
                a = function () {
                    var n = t.clientWidth || 320; n > 720 && (n = 720);
                    t.style.fontSize = n / d + “px”
                };
            e.addEventListener && (n.addEventListener(o, a, !1), e.addEventListener(“DOMContentLoaded”, a, !1))
        }(window);
    </script>
    <style>
        * {
            box-sizing: border-box;
        }
        body {
            margin: 0;
            padding: 0;
            font-size: 16px;
        }
        .block {
            background: #1e90ff;
            width: 7.2rem;
            height: 2rem;
        }
        .block2 {
            background: #ef4437;
            width: 3.6rem;
            height: 3.6rem;
        }
    </style>
</head>
<body>
    <div class=”wrap”>
        <div class=”block”>100% 7.2rem 设计图尺寸720,1rem=100px</div>
        <div class=”block2″>50% 3.6rem</div>
    </div>
</body>
</html>

我自己常用的是adaptive.js

3.页面样式重置,这个在pc端还是移动端都会用到的

css 代码

/*css初始化*/
body,
ol,
ul,
h1,
h2,
h3,
h4,
h5,
h6,
p,
th,
td,
dl,
dd,
form,
fieldset,
legend,
input,
textarea,
select {
    margin: 0;
    padding: 0;
}
body {
    font-size: 16px;
    font-family: ‘微软雅黑’, ‘microsoft yahei’, ‘microsoft sans serif’;
    background: #ededed;
    color: #313131;
}
a,
a:hover {
    text-decoration: none;
    color: inherit;
}
em,
i {
    font-style: normal;
}
li {
    list-style: none;
}
img {
    border: 0;
    vertical-align: middle;
}
table {
    border-collapse: collapse;
    border-spacing: 0;
}
p {
    word-wrap: break-word;
}
input,
textarea {
    outline: none;
    font-family: ‘微软雅黑’, ‘microsoft yahei’;
}
* {
    box-sizing: border-box;
} /*使用border-box盒模型使得计算位置、大小更方便*/
input[type=’submit’],
input[type=’button’],
input[type=’reset’] {
    -webkit-appearance: none;
} /*消除iPhone上按钮显示怪异的情况*/
4.使用一屏布局

这个是我在查看一些UI框架发现的东西,整个页面分三块不超过一屏,header、contaner、footer。
内容都放在container中,超过就overflow-y:scroll;
这个其实挺好用的,使得页面结构清晰,布局容易
html 代码

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
    <meta charset=”UTF-8″>
    <meta name=”viewport” content=”width=device-width, initial-scale=1, user-scalable=no, minimal-ui” />
    <title></title>
    <style type=”text/css”>
        body,
        html {
            position: absolute;
            margin: 0;
            padding: 0;
            width: 320px;
            height: 100%;
        }
        * {
            box-sizing: border-box;
        }
        .g-page {
            position: absolute;
            top: 0;
            width: 100%;
            height: 100%;
            background: #FAFAFA;
        }
        .g-header {
            position: absolute;
            top: 0;
            width: 100%;
            height: 40px;
            line-height: 40px;
            background: #EF4437;
            color: #fff;
            text-align: center;
            z-index: 10;
        }
        .g-content {
            position: absolute;
            top: 0;
            left: 0;
            right: 0;
            bottom: 0;
            overflow: hidden;
            overflow-y: scroll;
            -webkit-overflow-scrolling: touch;
            background: #008000;
        }
        .g-footer {
            position: absolute;
            bottom: 0;
            width: 100%;
            height: 40px;
            line-height: 40px;
            background: #666;
            color: #fff;
            text-align: center;
        }
        .g-header~.g-content {
            top: 40px;
        }
        .g-footer~.g-content {
            bottom: 40px;
        }
        .div1 {
            height: 300px;
            background: #909090;
        }
        .div2 {
            height: 300px;
            background: #82615f;
        }
        .div3 {
            height: 300px;
            background: #1e90ff;
        }
    </style>
</head>
<body>
    <div class=”g-page”>
        <div class=”g-header”>头部</div>
        <div class=”g-footer”>页脚</div>
        <div class=”g-content”>
            <div class=”div1″>
                内容
            </div>
            <div class=”div2″>
                内容
            </div>
            <div class=”div3″>
                内容
            </div>
        </div>
    </div>
</body>
</html>
5.左边定宽,右边自适应的布局,我们会经常用到

html 代码

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
    <meta charset=”UTF-8″>
    <title></title>
    <meta name=”viewport” content=”width=device-width, initial-scale=1, user-scalable=no, minimal-ui” />
    <style>
        body {
            margin: 0;
            padding: 0;
        }
        * {
            box-sizing: border-box;
        }
        .container-1 {
            display: flex;
            height: 150px;
            margin-bottom: 40px;
        }
        .container-1 .left {
            width: 150px;
            height: 100%;
            background: #1E90FF;
        }
        .container-1 .right {
            flex: 1;
            height: 100%;
            background: #ef4437;
        }
        .container-2 {
            position: relative;
            width: 100%;
            height: 150px;
            margin-bottom: 40px;
        }
        .container-2 .left {
            position: absolute;
            width: 150px;
            height: 100%;
            background: #EF2322;
            z-index: 2;
        }
        .container-2 .right {
            position: absolute;
            left: 0;
            width: 100%;
            height: 100%;
            padding-left: 150px;
            background: #1E90FF;
        }
        .container-3 {
            overflow: hidden;
            height: 150px;
        }
        .container-3 .left {
            float: left;
            width: 150px;
            height: 100%;
            background: #1E90FF;
        }
        .container-3 .right {
            /*width: 100%;*/
            height: 100%;
            padding-left: 150px;
            background: #EF2322;
        }
    </style>
</head>
<body>
    <div style=”width: 800px;margin: 0 auto;”>
        <div class=”container-1″>
            <div class=”left”></div>
            <div class=”right”></div>
        </div>
        <div class=”container-2″>
            <div class=”left”></div>
            <div class=”right”></div>
        </div>
        <div class=”container-3″>
            <div class=”left”>2222222222222</div>
            <div class=”right”>1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
                <br>222222222222222</div>
        </div>
    </div>
</body>
</html>
6.模块化、组件化开发,防止css命名重复,提高开发效率

这个对我这个英语词汇量不大的来说,简直是福音啊,
以前写css老是怕重名,写的各种奇怪命名,效率还低,

7.一像素的问题

在高分屏上写一个像素边框,那显示的活脱脱的就是两个像素,
设计师不满意,老板不满意;
我们可以用伪元素和css3来解决
css 代码

.item {
    width: 2rem;
    height: 0.5rem;
}
.item:after {
    content: ‘ ‘;
    position: absolute;
    left: 0;
    right: 0;
    height: 1px;
    z-index: 2;
    bottom: 0;
    border-bottom: 1px solid #d9d9d9;
    -webkit-transform-origin: 0 100%;
    transform-origin: 0 100%;
    -webkit-transform: scaleY(0.5);
    transform: scaleY(0.5);
}

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